Sinusitis is the most common complication of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI). This disease occurs with the same frequency in male and female patients. Approximately 10% of adult population and 5% of children suffer from some form of sinusitis.
During the initial period of the disease, the virus multiplies in the throat, nose and nasopharynx; this may cause a runny nose, cough and scratchy throat. Once the virus is in the blood, the body begins to produce antibodies that subsequently clear the blood and the disease symptoms weaken. If this does not happen, the disease will progress that may require the use of antibiotics.
Despite the fact that ARVI is a virus, against which antibiotics are ineffective, sinusitis is accompanied with bacterial infection. In this case, different types of antibiotics can be recommended.
Antibiotics for the treatment of sinus infection can be used regardless of the disease severity – mild, moderate or severe. There are some clinical forms of the disease:
- Acute sinusitis (less than 3 months).
- Chronic sinusitis (more than 3 months).
- Recurrent acute sinusitis (a few cases per year).
- Exacerbation of chronic sinusitis (the appearance of new symptoms or worsening of the existing).
In proper use of antibiotics, the following symptoms of sinus infection weaken and disappear:
- nasal congestion;
- pain in the head;
- intracranial pressure;
- temperature above 37.5 degrees Celsius;
- purulent discharge from the nose or mouth.
Antibiotics should be chosen on the basis of data on the predominant pathogens of sinusitis. In addition, the severity of the patient’s condition and resistance of pathogens can affect the choice of drugs. The main pathogens are:
- Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and others – acute sinusitis, recurrent acute sinusitis and exacerbation of chronic sinusitis.
- Anaerobes, gram-negative bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, fungi, and others – chronic sinusitis.
To kill or to inhibit the bacterial growth of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, medications containing active substance Amoxicillin or a combination of substances Amoxicillin / Clavulanate potassium are most often used. You can buy these antibiotics under the original trade names Prevpac, Moxatag, Larotid, Augmentin, Amoxil or under the international nonproprietary name Amoxicillin and Clavulanate potassium.
If these drugs are ineffective and/or sinus infection is caused by other pathogens, it is possible to use alternative antibiotics – Azithromycin, Cefaclor, Clarithromycin, Doxycycline and others. Typically, these drugs are prescribed in moderate sinus infection.
Severe acute sinusitis occurs rarely. For the treatment of this disease form, it is also possible to use drugs containing Amoxicillin and/or Clavulanate potassium and some more antibiotics, such as:
- Ampicillin / sulbactam
In sinus infection, the method of antibiotic administration can depend on the disease severity. Mild and moderate sinusitis is usually treated by means of oral antibiotics (tablets, capsules). In severe sinusitis, it is possible to use drugs intended for intravenous administration. As the general state improves, antibiotics intended for oral intake can be used.
The duration of treating sinus infection depends on the form and severity of the disease. In acute sinusitis, antibacterial therapy is most often carried out within 7-10 days, but in exacerbation of chronic sinusitis – up to 21 days. Social indications, suspected complications and other factors can become a reason for hospitalization.
One of the best ways to avoid sinusitis disease and antibiotics use is prevention. Since ARVI and sinus infection mainly appear in cold season, strengthening the immune system is the basis of prevention. The easiest way to strengthen the immune system is to consume a sufficient amount of vitamins and prevention of hypothermia.