Side effects of antibiotics

Side effects of antibiotics

Antibiotics are natural or semi-synthetic substances that inhibit the growth of micro-organisms and their multiplication. Depending on its group, antibiotic may have bacteriostatic or bactericidal effect. Thus antibiotics with bacteriostatic effect act by inhibiting the function of bacteria to multiply, yet not killing them. But bactericidal antibiotics kill the bacteria. In addition, there are also wide-spectrum antibiotics, in other words those that are effective against many micro-organisms; and narrow-spectrum antibiotics, which affect certain type of bacteria only.

Each antibiotic group is characterized by its own mechanism of action, sometimes causing side effects. But it is not that easy to predict the occurrence of antibiotics side effects, because of individual reaction of the patient’s body. Probability of side effects of antibiotics increases with the drug dose enhancement and in many ways depends on duration use of the drug. Patient must notify his therapist, if unwanted side reactions occur. But usually side effects of antibiotics pass quickly when the dose is reduced or the treatment with antibiotics is discontinued.

While taking antibiotics, patient may notice dysbacteriosis of the gastrointestinal tract as one of the side effects. Dysbacteriosis arise due to that antibiotics not only kill the pathogenic organisms, but also some good bacteria in the intestines. Dysbacteriosis symptoms: diarrhea, flatulence, constipation. Also the lack of vitamin K is considered as dysbacteriosis manifestation. Lack of vitamin K causes nasal bleeding, gums bleeding and bruises in the body.

As one of the side effects of antibiotics, gastrointestinal dysbiosis occurs within several days after intake of the first dose of the drug. Sometimes to restore normal intestinal flora, pharmacotherapy (drug therapy) is required. Therefore along with antibiotics or soon after their use, patient should take drugs (Bifidobakterin, Hilak Forte, Linex) that contain strains of beneficial bacteria. Often dysbiosis is caused by tetracyclines (Rifabutin, Vancomycin, Meropenem), cephalosporins (Zeftera, Ceftazidime, Claforan) and aminoglycosides (Amikacin, Kanamycin, Brulamycin).

Because antibiotic drugs destroy normal intestinal flora of the mucous membranes, candidiasis occur after the use of these drugs. Candidiasis is typically a fungal infection in the vagina and mouth cavity. It is known that candidiasis pathogen is Candida fungi, resistant to most of antibiotics. Normally beneficial bacteria in the human body inhibit the growth of fungi. But due to the impact of antibiotic drugs, beneficial bacteria die and so the fungi start to multiply actively. In order to prevent or to cure candidiasis, it is recommended to take antifungal drugs along with antibiotics. For example such antifungal drugs as: Fluconazole, Clotrimazole and Miconazole. Note: any group of antibiotics can provoke candidiasis.

Other common side effects of antibiotics are: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and constipation. These unwanted manifestations occur because antibiotics irritate the mucous membrane of esophagus. In order to minimize the likelihood of these side effects of antibiotics, it is recommended to take drugs after meal. Food protects the mucosa from direct contact with antibiotics. If patient has severe nausea, doctor should better prescribe him injections instead of tablets. Antibiotic injections provoke gastrointestinal side effects rarely than the tablets, since they have no direct contact with gastric mucosa.

However, antibiotics in form of injections can cause local inflammations. Because of intramuscular antibiotic injection, side effects of antibiotics may occur, namely: infiltration (gelosis) or abscess on the place of injection. The intravenous antibiotic injection may provoke phlebitis (inflammation of the vein walls).

Antibiotics may cause allergic reactions, manifested as skin itching, rash and dermatitis. In severe cases, patient suffers from anaphylactic shock. Allergic reactions are provoked mostly by such antibiotics as: penicillins (Augmentin, Bicillin-5, Extencilline) and cephalosporins (Cedax, Lorazidime, Claforan). If patient has allergy to penicillins, it means that cephalosporins should not be used. Instead, patients, who have hypersensitivity to antibiotics of this group, should take macrolides (Wilprafen, Klacid, Sumamed).

Serious side effects of antibiotics are nephrotic and hepatotoxic reactions, manifesting as the affected tissues of the liver and kidneys. Symptoms of nephrotic reaction: back pain, thirst and problematic urination. Symptoms of hepatotoxic side effects of antibiotics: dark urine, yellow skin tone or white feces. Nephrotic and hepatotoxic reactions appear due to the toxic effect of the drugs. Large doses of antibiotics, as well as pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis and hepatitis increase the risk of impaired liver and kidneys. Neprotic and hepatotoxic side effects are often caused by aminoglycosides(Tobramycin, Netilmicin, Selemycin); tetracyclines (Doxycycline, Metacycline, Tygacil); and TB drugs (Protubutin, Rifapex, Rifapentine).

Although some certain groups of antibiotics tend to cause side effects more often than the others, there are some common side effects. For instance, any antibiotic drugs may cause inhibitory effect on the immune system. But long-term use of antibiotics or impaired dosing can cause resistance of pathogenic organisms to the drugs.

If you want to buy drugs for the treatment of bacterial infections without a prescription, please familiarize yourself with side effects of antibiotics before placing your order. Thus you may find out the information on side effects and pharmacological properties of antibiotics by contacting our pharmacist online. You can order antibiotics online and ask your questions at any time convenient.