Despite the fact that today the number of effective hormonal contraceptives is large, many women prefer non hormonal contraception methods.
Current non hormonal birth contraception methods include:
- natural methods
- intrauterine devices
- surgical sterilization
- barrier and spermicidal
Natural methods of contraception are methods of birth control without the use of hormonal pills, surgery, spermicides, condoms, cervical caps.
These methods are based on the physiological characteristics of the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. These include the method of interrupted sexual intercourse, periodic abstinence and lactational amenorrhea method.
The main drawback of these non hormonal birth control methods is the fact that they are effective only in regular menstrual cycle. Uncertainty about the effectiveness of these methods makes couples worry each time, when waiting for the onset of the cycle.
When used properly, the efficacy of this contraception method varies between 75-90%.
Intrauterine device (IUD) is one of the most effective, simple and easy to use non hormonal birth control methods.
IUD is recommended for women, who are sensitive to hormonal birth control or are unwilling to take any additional contraceptive measures every time after a sexual intercourse.
The global pharmaceutical market offers a large IUD number of many shapes and sizes. The American women have the opportunity to buy a copper IUD under the trade name ParaGard.
Despite the fact that the IUD has a high efficiency (about 98%), this type of non hormonal birth control should not be used in infections, sexually transmitted diseases.
Typically, IUD is well tolerated by patients, but such side effects, as heavy menstruation, and abdominal pain may manifest in some women.
The most reliable non hormonal birth control method is surgical sterilization.
Female sterilization is a surgical procedure, during which the litigation or intersection is made on the lumen of the fallopian tubes. Male sterilization lies in the blockade of vas deferens.
Sterilization does not result in hormonal or physical changes. However, the great disadvantage of this non hormonal contraception method is its irreversible fertility loss.
In addition, sterilization of women implies a risk of complications, associated with surgery and anesthesia, while in men the risk of prostate cancer may increase.
This method of contraception is permanent, so before deciding to take this step, both men and women should assess its benefits and potential risks.
The barrier method of contraception is one of the most popular among men and women of all ages. Its principle of action is to block the penetration of sperm into the uterus. Concurrent use of barrier method with spermicides contributes to the best possible barrier method protection.
This non hormonal birth control method includes male and female condoms, diaphragms/ cervical caps and spermicidal foam, sponges, and film. Spermicides are substances that destroy the sperm, thus enhancing the effectiveness of the barrier method of contraception.
Experts recommend the joint use diaphragms/ cervical caps with spermicides for reaching the highest efficiency in pregnancy prevention.
The main disadvantage of the diaphragm and the cervical caps is that they might cause urinary tract infections and inflammatory processes in the places of their contact with the vaginal walls.
The condom is the only barrier contraceptive, which is used by men. Its advantage is that it protects against sexual infections and HIV and is easy to use.
According to statistics, the effectiveness of the male condom is 15 pregnancies per 100 women. Unlike other non hormonal birth control methods, the barrier method is used immediately before the sexual intercourse.
Age, presence of labor, regularity of sexual life and peculiarities of the female and male organisms should be taken into account, when choosing a non hormonal birth control method.